Sciatica refers to a type of pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which is the longest nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve runs from the lower back through the hips and buttocks, down each leg, and branches into smaller nerves that extend into the lower legs and feet. The lifetime incidence of sciatica ranges from 10-40%, usually in the fourth decade of life.

Sciatica occurs when there is irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve, typically caused by a herniated disc in the lumbar spine (lower back), spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), bone spurs, or other conditions that affect the spine. The most common symptom of sciatica is a sharp, shooting pain that starts in the lower back and travels down one leg. Other symptoms might include tingling, numbness, or weakness in the affected leg or foot.
The pain intensity can vary, and it may worsen with certain activities like sitting, coughing, or sneezing. In most cases, sciatica affects only one side of the body

Symptoms of Siatica

Sciatica can present with a variety of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The most common symptom is pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down through the hips, buttocks, and legs. Here are some common symptoms of sciatica:

  • Sharp, Shooting Pain: The hallmark symptom of sciatica is a sharp, shooting pain that originates in the lower back or buttocks and travels down one leg. The pain can vary in intensity and may be described as electric or searing.
  • Pain Radiating Down the Leg: The pain typically follows the path of the sciatic nerve, which extends down the back of the thigh, calf, and sometimes into the foot and toes. The pain may be felt in one leg only.
  • Tingling and Numbness: Many people with sciatica experience sensations of tingling or numbness in the affected leg, foot, or toes. This often accompanies the pain and may vary in intensity.
  • Muscle Weakness: Weakness in the leg or foot muscles may occur due to the irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve. This can lead to difficulty in walking, standing, or lifting the foot.
  • Aggravation with Certain Activities: Activities that increase pressure on the sciatic nerve or worsen the irritation can exacerbate the pain. These activities may include sitting for prolonged periods, coughing, sneezing, or sudden movements.
  • Pain While Standing: Some individuals experience increased pain when standing for extended periods due to the pressure on the lower back and the sciatic nerve.
  • Lower Back Pain: While sciatica pain typically radiates down the leg, it can also be accompanied by lower back pain, especially if the underlying cause is a herniated disc or spinal stenosis.

    It’s important to note that while sciatica often presents with the symptoms mentioned above, not everyone will experience all of them. The severity of symptoms can also vary from person to person.

Other medical conditions to consider that could be causing the sciatica-like pain:

  • Herniated lumbosacral disc
  • Muscle spasm
  • Nerve root impingement
  • Epidural abscess
  • Epidural hematoma
  • Tumor
  • Potts Disease, also known as spinal tuberculosis
  • Piriformis syndrome

If you suspect you have sciatica or are experiencing persistent pain, numbness, or weakness in your lower back, hips, buttocks, or legs, it’s advisable to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Most cases of sciatica resolve with conservative treatment in 4-6 weeks. If not, MRI imaging and follow-up with an Orthopedic specialist are advised.

Conservative Treatment:

  • Use of hot or cold packs for comfort and to decrease inflammation
  • Avoidance of inciting activities or prolonged sitting/standing
  • Practicing good, erect posture
  • Engaging in exercises to increase core strength
  • Gentle stretching of the lumbar spine and hamstrings
  • Regular light exercises such as walking, swimming, or aquatherapy
  • Use of proper lifting techniques

Medical Therapies:

  • A short course of oral NSAIDs
  • Opioid and nonopioid analgesics
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Anticonvulsants for neurogenic pain
  • In the event oral NSAIDs are insufficient, a course of oral corticosteroids may be beneficial.
  • Localized corticosteroid injections
  • Spinal manipulation
  • Deep tissue massage may be helpful
  • Physical therapy consultation
  • Surgical evaluation and correction of any structural abnormalities such as disc herniation, epidural hematoma, epidural abscess, or tumor
  • Acupuncture

Exercises and stretches to help alleviate sciatica pain:

If you’re experiencing sciatica pain, certain exercises and stretches can help alleviate discomfort and promote healing. However, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any exercise regimen, especially if you have severe pain or an underlying medical condition. Here are some exercises that are often recommended for sciatica pain relief:

Pelvic Tilt:

  • Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor.
  • Gently tighten your abdominal muscles to press your lower back into the floor.
  • Hold for a few seconds, and then release.
  • Repeat this movement several times.

Knee to Chest Stretch:

  • Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor.
  • Bring one knee toward your chest and hold it with both hands.
  • Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds and then switch legs.
  • Perform this stretch on both legs several times.

Piriformis Stretch:

  • Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor.
  • Cross one leg over the other, placing the ankle on the opposite knee.
  • Gently pull the lower leg toward your chest until you feel a stretch in your buttocks.
  • Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds and then switch legs.
  • Repeat on both sides.

Child’s Pose:

  • Start on your hands and knees in a tabletop position.
  • Sit back onto your heels, extending your arms in front of you.
  • Keep your forehead on the ground and relax into the stretch.
  • Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds.

Cat-Cow Stretch:

  • Start on your hands and knees in a tabletop position.
  • Inhale, arch your back, and lift your tailbone (cow pose).
  • Exhale, round your back, and tuck your chin to your chest (cat pose).
  • Move between these two poses for several repetitions.

Seated Spinal Twist:

  • Sit on the floor with your legs extended.
  • Bend one knee and cross it over the other leg, placing the foot flat on the floor.
  • Twist your upper body gently toward the bent knee.
  • Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds and then switch sides.

Remember to perform these exercises gently and without forcing any movement that causes pain. Stop immediately if you experience increased pain or discomfort. If your sciatica pain persists or worsens, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and personalized guidance on managing your condition. A physical therapist can also provide tailored exercises and stretches based on your specific needs.


Davis D, Maini K, Vasudevan A. Sciatica. [Updated 2022 May 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:

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